As part of Optometry Tomorrow’s commitment to demonstrate how today’s innovation and research leads to tomorrow’s practice, poster presentations will once again bring new developments on all sorts of topics straight to delegates.
Poster presentations provide a unique opportunity for you to talk one-on-one with the individual behind the work, as you can chat to the poster presenter and find out exactly what the work might mean for you.
Abstracts can cover research, clinical practice or other relevant initiatives in optometry, vision science and related fields. The posters presented will cover anything relevant to optometrists, opticians, ophthalmologists, educationalists or those working in industries related to eye care.
The emphasis with all posters will be on what impact the content is likely to have on optometric practice.
Posters will be displayed throughout the conference and there will be a prize awarded to one of the poster presenters as part of the College’s Research Excellence Awards.
1. Dementia and vision, integrating care
Policy Manager, The College of Optometrists
The policy team at the College has been exploring ways to implement findings from the Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Dementia (ProVIDe) study (funded by NIHR and led by the College of Optometrists). Using a practical approach, we are generating resources and finding the best way to support optometrists in caring for their patients with dementia, while nurturing integration across the wider primary care team. This poster offers an overview of our work to have vision included in
existing dementia pathways and strategies, as well as encouraging and empowering GPs to recommend an eye examination at the point of diagnosis.
2. The effect of peripheral defocus on axial growth and modulation of refractive error in hyperopes
Dr Ian Beasley MCOptom
Head of Education, Association of Optometrists and Clinical Editor, Optometry Today
Myopia management interventions are becoming more accessible to practitioners in routine clinical practice. By manipulating the retinal image shell using multifocal contact lenses, axial growth and subsequent progression of myopia can be slowed. However, despite the visual consequences of hyperopia, there is a lack of research exploring the potential for accelerating axial growth, with the aim of reducing refractive error, in this cohort. Interim results are presented from the authors’ longitudinal study investigating the impact of multifocal contact lenses on axial growth and modulation of refractive error in a cohort of hyperopes between 8 and 15 years of age.
3. Clinical tips for paediatric cycloplegic retinoscopy and fundi examination
Dr David Ehrlich FCOptom
Optometrist, Low Vision Clinic, Department of Optometry, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, West Midlands
This poster will present 20 of the most useful clinical tips to help cycloplegic retinoscopy and fundi examination as identified by the poster author, who has many years’ experience of research as well as of examining tens of thousands of infants.
These top tips include:
• Using the large low vision aid chest magnifiers as binocular retinoscopy neutralising lenses;
• Using +28 or +40D volk lenses for wide field penlight indirect ophthalmoscopy;
• Lost or forgotten your volk? Consider using a high power x6 or x7 low vision aid hand magnifier;
• How to get better cycloplegia in dark irides, improving infant co-operation, trial-frames and prescribing advice.
4. Peripapillary changes in myopic eyes
David Hill MCOptom
Director, Specsavers Opticians Newmarket, and Lecturer, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge
The increasing prevalence, earlier onset, and greater progression of myopia brings far more than increased inconvenience. Several common causes of visual loss have been shown to be associated with myopia. As optometrists, the optic nerve and surrounding area are of great interest, predominantly in relation to glaucoma detection. This region is examined in every eye examination with the myopic eye posing significant challenges in differentiating glaucomatous optic discs. It has been suggested that changes to the peripapillary area may be a marker for myopia progression and its associated pathological consequences. This poster describes a practice-based study that investigated the optic nerve head and surrounding area in myopic eyes. Optic nerve head metrics along with several other features were compared to the level of myopia and age.
5. Diagnostic ability of a new Thresholding Glaucoma Screening Programme using Temporally Modulated Flicker
Anish Jindal MCOptom
Specialist Optometrist, Moorfields Eye Hospital, and Visiting Lecturer, City, University of London
Despite advances in glaucoma diagnostics, at least 50% of sufferers in the industrial world are undetected, with up to 90% undetected in the developing world. There is a need for a simple, affordable and portable screening test that could be used for casefinding in at-risk populations. In this study we determined the accuracy of the Accelerator 4AFC Staircase Flicker Test Prototype (the A4FTp), a new visual field thresholding flicker test for detecting primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and compared it to the Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimeter and optical
coherence tomography (OCT). Overall test accuracy was similar for all tests. The time taken for the A4FTp for each eye averaged just over two minutes per eye and participants’ acceptance of the A4FTp was positive. The initial results from the A4FTp are promising and with further development this test could have a role in POAG detection..
6. Lifestyle effects on ocular health
PhD student, Ophthalmic Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham
Various aspects of lifestyle, such as smoking and diet, are known to affect healthy living, which in turn may have a contributory effect on ocular health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the tear film, accommodative ability and macular pigment in relation to lifestyle factors. It has been seen that smokers have lower amplitudes of accommodation and lower macular pigment levels. It is important for an optometrist to be aware of factors that affect ocular health so that appropriate advice can be correctly positioned to give evidence-based information to patients.
7. Methods of visual examination following stroke: a systematic review
Malcolm MacIver MCOptom
Optometry Course Leader, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth
With an ageing population, the number of patients presenting for sight tests with a history of cerebral vascular disease is increasing. In common with other healthcare professions, optometrists seek to provide the best evidence-based care available for their patients. An often overlooked aspect of clinical care is the diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests within, and between, patient groups. Due to the absence of formal requirements for the adoption of examination techniques, the relative clinical value of different examination methods is often neglected. This poster brings together the evidence demonstrating the relative diagnostic utility of clinical tests in patients with a history of stroke.
8. Principal difficulties facing patients with acquired vision loss
Jane Macnaughton FCOptom
Specialist Optometrist, Leicester Royal Infirmary, and PhD student, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge and Council member, The College of Optometrists
The practical implications that acquired vision loss has upon the performance of daily activities varies significantly between individuals. The disabling effect resulting from the inability to read, or the loss of independence following the withdrawal of a driving licence, inevitably has both practical and emotional consequences. This study was undertaken to determine the key self-reported difficulties and influencing factors relating to activities of daily living and social participation for patients recently identified with visual impairment.
9. Visual profile of children passing/failing a UK School Vision Protocol
Dr Sara McCullough MCOptom
Lecturer in Optometry, Ulster University, Northern Ireland and Council member, The College of Optometrists
With the recent publication by Public Health England of new child vision screening materials and guidance, it was timely to investigate the visual profile of children passing and failing the UK National Screening Committee (NSC) recommended school vision screening protocol.
The NSC guidance states that “amblyopia is the most likely condition to be detected” by school vision screening but also suggests that “refractive error and strabismus would be detected”; however, there are few published studies evaluating how well the current screening protocol identifies these problems. This poster presents the sensitivity and specificity of the current screening protocol for detecting strabismus and refractive error, how many children with significant visual issues pass the screening protocol and describes the visual profile of those who fail. This information can be used to ensure that the diagnostic pathway implemented, and competency frameworks developed to support the pathway, are evidence-based and optimise prompt, appropriate treatment.
10. Decision making and referral practice of optometrists
Dr David Parkins FCOptom
Vice Chair of the Clinical Council for Eye Health Commissioning, and Chair of the London Eye Health Network (NHS England) and Immediate Past President, The College of Optometrists
Variation in clinical decision-making and referral practice exists within optometry. This becomes an important issue when lack of ophthalmology capacity leads to longer patient waiting times and follow-up appointment delays. Online vignettes and referral audit suggest that some newly-qualified optometrists tend to refer more readily once they are qualified, possibly due to lack of clinical confidence, experience and support; and this may be associated with an increase in workload. Continuing Education and Training (CET) alone appears unlikely to be an adequate approach to improving referral decision-making. Recommendations include mentoring and support for some newly-qualified optometrists up to two years post-qualification, and further efforts to encourage ophthalmology replies to optometric referrals.
11. The influence of tissue bound advanced glycation end-products on retinal vessel calibre
Leanne Smewing MCOptom
PhD student, University of Plymouth, Plymouth
The retinal vessels share anatomical and physiological characteristics with vascular beds elsewhere in the body. As the retinal vessels are easily accessible there is increasing interest in the possibility of using them as a marker of systemic vascular health. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a group of reactive compounds which accumulate naturally with age in blood vessels throughout the body. As well as forming in the body, AGEs form in foods, tobacco and are linked with oxidative stress. Accelerated accumulation of AGEs has been linked to a number of diseases with known vascular associations including diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and potentially primary open angle glaucoma. However, the direct influence of AGEs on the retinal vessels has not previously been assessed. This study has looked at associations between AGE levels and retinal vessel parameters in a healthy population.
12. An audit of optometrists prescribing in acute services
Helen Wilson MCOptom
Principal Optometrist, Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester
Optometrists at Manchester Royal Eye Hospital have been registered as Independent Non-Medical Prescribers since 2010. As clinical roles have extended into other ophthalmic services, individual formularies have had to be amended to be useful to the optometrist working in these areas to reflect the clinical workload.
Optometrists first started working in Acute Services in 2013 and updated formularies were submitted at the time. The aim of this audit was to monitor compliance to the Manchester Foundation Trust Non-Medical Prescribing Policy and the College of Optometrists Prescribing Guidance. It also aimed to identify shortfalls in the optometrists’ current Pharmacy Formularies for those optometrists working in Acute Services.